10 Very few names can serve either as surnames or as given names (for example mayumi, kaneko, masuko, or Arata ). Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and which is the given name is usually apparent, no matter which order the names are presented. This thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order. However, due to the variety of pronunciations and differences in languages, some common surnames and given names may coincide when Romanized:. G., Shoji, or ) (given name) and Shoji, or ) (surname). Japanese names have distinct differences from Chinese names through the selection of characters in a name and pronunciation. A japanese person can distinguish a japanese name from a chinese name by looking. Akie tomozawa, author of "Japan's Hidden Bilinguals: The languages of 'war Orphans' and Their Families After Repatriation From China said that this was equivalent to how "Europeans can easily tell that the name 'smith' is English and 'Schmidt' is German or 'victor' is English.
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9 Historically, myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was originally the patrilineal surname which is why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank. The lower form of the name sei being tei which is a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name 'sei' originally came. There were relatively few sei, and most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei. Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but later merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was, simply, what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku (uncles one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. Multiple japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many japanese personal names use puns.
" keiko or -mi ( "beauty. Other popular endings for female names include -ka ( "scent, perfume" or "flower. " reika and -na or, meaning "greens" or "apple tree. Contents Structure edit The majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name myōji ( or uji or sei precedes the given name, called the "name" ( mei ) or "lower name" water ( shita no namae ). The given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. 8 people with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names.
5 Male names often end in -rō ( "son but also "clear, bright. " Ichirō -ta ( "great, thick. " Kenta or -o ( / / "man. "Teruo" or " akio 7 or contain ichi ( "first son. " Ken'ichi kazu (also written with "first son along with several other possible characters;. " kazuhiro ji over ( "second son" or "next. " Jirō or dai ( "great, large. Female names often end in -ko ( "child.
3, this diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the east Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were often reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles. The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a very large population (over 30 million during the early meiji era see demographics of Imperial Japan ) instead of dating to ancient times (estimated population at 1 ce. 4 Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions; for example, the names Chinen higa and Shimabukuro are common in okinawa but not in other parts of Japan; this is mainly due to differences between the language and culture of Yamato people and okinawans. Many japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape; for example, ishikawa means "river of the stones yamamoto means "the base of the mountain and Inoue means "above the well". While family names follow relatively consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can easily be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, and such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have especially become common, with this trend having increased significantly since the 1990s. 5 6 For example, the popular masculine name is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto " Yamato "Taiga "Sora "Taito "Daito and "Masato" have all entered use.
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Not to be confused with, names of Japan. Yamada, tarō a japanese placeholder name (male equivalent. John Smith in English. 1, the equivalent of, words jane Smith would be yamada hanako. Japanese names nihonjin no Shimei ) in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname followed by a given name.
More than one given name is not generally used. Japanese names are usually written in kanji, which are characters usually, chinese in origin but. The kanji for a name may have a variety of possible japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, and so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are extremely varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan. 2, the three most common family names in Japan are. Satō suzuki and, takahashi.
And then they. I dont want to make a prediction today. But I do want to point out two facts: 1) For the last 30 years, the trend in interest rates has been down. 2) Mortgage rates in Japan today are less than. Lets take a look at each of those facts.
In the 1980s, nobody could imagine a mortgage rate below. In the 1990s, nobody could imagine a mortgage rate below. In the 2000s, nobody could imagine a mortgage rate below. Yet here we are, in 2011 and mortgage rates have spent the last month in the.5 range. Rates today are in the 3 percent range (a drop of 33 percent from the.5 range when the article was written). . The big take away really is that in 2012, much of the boost in prices came from this added leverage that households could take. .
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Low rates create massive market distortions. . At least in this sense we are different from Japan but this is going on right now. . Will investors continue to be a big part of the market moving forward? . yields are already collapsing in many places like arizona and Las Vegas and investors will pull back. Us and mortgage rates, us home values are now back to prices last seen in 2003. . A lost decade has already occurred: keep in mind that in 2003, mortgage rates were in the 6 percent range and now have fallen by over 50 percent thus increasing what Americans can take on to purchase a home. . Home prices have not shot up in a similar fashion because households have not seen any real wage increases: Someone nailed the prediction on lower mortgage rates here: (. Daily wealth, mid-2011 ) every year since i can remember, real estate brokers have warned, youve got to buy now before mortgage rates. every year, the majority of economists and experts predict that interest rates simply cant best fall any farther.
Sales from the bottom, here is an interesting take from economist. Dean baker : Both the, nyt and, usa toda y have convinced dentist themselves that house sales are well below their trend level, with the latter telling us that.5 million annual sales rate of existing homes considered healthy. In fact, we are pretty much back to trend levels of sales. In the mid-90s before the bubble began to distort the market, sales averaged about.5 million a year. A simple adjustment for the 15 percent population growth over this period would imply an annual sales rate of 4 million existing homes. That is somewhat below the current.5 million sales rate. Today existing home sales are.04 million in november of 2012. . There is massive speculation and much of this is coming from investors, flippers, and foreign money. .
of the reasons for me to decide to buy my first home. I borrowed 47 million yen and i am on a 35-year repayment plan with an interest rate.075. But despite such attractive rates, real estate agent Hidetaka miyazaki says he has not seen an increase in the number of buyers and investors in the last 20 years, especially not in sub-urban areas. Essentially what is happening is market manipulation of rates to keep home prices inflated for banks. . In Japan, the support to banks has been nearly unlimited since the real estate bubble burst in 1990. . The fed is following a very similar road allowing banks to selectively hold off properties from the market while pushing rates lower to keep prices higher. . Since there are zero conditions on bailouts or funding, banks can do what they see fit even in the aftermath of the greatest housing bubble in us history.
Japan Prices back to 1983 levels. Residential property values in Japan are now back to levels last seen in 1983: Japan is an important case example because in 1990, japan had a gdp.1 trillion and the us was.7 trillion. . Japan for many years was the second largest economy. . But today japans gdp is what it was in 1995. . The bank of Japan bailed out the banking system with bucket loads of troubled assets and forced rates to incredibly low levels. . you can get mortgages in Japan in the 2 percent range answers but once again, refer to the first chart. Some people take the next step and talk about zero percent mortgage rates. . Why speculate when we can look at Japan for an example: bBC ) Yoshifumi tachibana, 32, might be one.
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When the, japanese housing bubble burst in 1990 the economy was left in disarray. . Hard to believe that this happened 23 years ago but real estate prices in Japan are now at levels last seen in 1983. . In other words, thirty years of virtually no real growth in real estate values. . In a system conditioned by inflation this is a perfect example of asset deflation. Many simply assume that real estate appreciation is going to happen one way or another but we are now following a low rate policy regret similar to what the bank of Japan did with quantitative easing. . 2012 is not a good example to set a baseline for a trend because interest rates were pushed down heavily by the fed and inventory continues to be held off creating a low level of supply on the market. . Yet when we look at what Americans can afford on a monthly basis, it is virtually locked because household incomes have been stagnant for well over a decade. . Japanese asset boom and bust provides many parallels to what we should expect in the. . Many point to 2012 as some sort of divergence but this is more a reflection of aggressive quantitative easing and low inventory more than a sustainable boom because of solid economic and wage growth.